Pisum sativum is an annual plant and has a life cycle of a year. The pea is the small spherical seed that develops from the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Several peas are formed in each pod. Pods are fruit as they contain seeds, which develop in the Pea flower’s ovary. The weight of average peas lies between 0.1 and 0.36 grams.
Green pea is a family of plant that is commonly based on herbs. It originated in the Himalayan plains, probably from the field pea native to Central Asia and the Middle East. Peas are important for the environment. It works with bacteria in the soil and fixes the nitrogen present in the air and deposits it in the soil. This process is nitrification. This deposited nitrogen reduces the requirement of fertilizers in the soil. After the harvesting of the pea plant, the rest of the plant breaks down and act as organic fertilizer. A pea plant requires minimal moisture to grow.
The use of immature peas is as a vegetable, fresh, canned or frozen. A pea is green most commonly, can be golden yellow, purple. It is grown in the winter season; therefore, called the vegetable crop of cool season.
Peas are grown in two varieties: vining and low-growing. The thin tendrils from leaves grow from the vining cultivars grow, and they have the tendency to coil around a support. They can climb to one to two meter high. Self-pollination takes place in peas.
Peas have a lot of nutritional values. It is amazing to know how many calories in peas are present actually.
Varieties of Peas
There are various cultivated varieties (cultivars) of peas. There are various cultivars which are resistant to powdery mildew.
- Afila types: They are also known as semi-leafless. They have clusters of tendrils in the place of leaves.
- Serge, 68 days, it shows powdery mildew
- Recruit, 70 days, it also shows powdery mildew
- Dwarf varieties: The averages height to which these grow are of about 1m.
- Extra dwarf cultivated varieties: These types of cultivars reach only about 25 cm.
- Heirloom, extra dwarf, Tom Thumb / Half Pint, 55 days
- Semi-tall cultivars: These cultivated varieties reach about 1.5m and grows to about 2m tall.
- Mira Green, 68 days (semi-tall climber)
Other varieties of P. Sativum
- Pisum sativum variation macrocarpa. It is commonly called the snow pea. The snow pea is consumable when flat.
- Pisum sativum variation macrocarpa is most of the time known as the sugar or snaps pea. Cylindrical peas are the best choice. It is best to consume them when they are still crisp.
- Smooth seeded Alaska, 55 days
- Little Marvel, 63 days, 1934 AASwinner
- Thomas Laxton (heirloom) 60–65 days
- Big, 60 days, 2000 AASwinner
- Early Perfection, 65 days
- Green Arrow, 70 days
- Homesteader/Lincoln, 67 days
- Wando, 68 days
- Tall Telephone/Alderman, 75 days. It belongs to tall climber heirloom
Health Benefits of Peas
- Peas contain ß-sitosterol: This is a phytosterol. Studies suggest that vegetables like fruits, legumes, and cereals which are rich in sterols lower cholesterol levels.
- Weight Management: Peas have low-fat content. Now, the main question that arises is. How many calories in peas are truly present? A cup of peas has less than 100 calories.
- Prevents Stomach cancer: Peas have high amounts of polyphenol known as coumestrol. A cup of peas has at least 10 milligrams of coumestrol. And according to a study, you only need 2 to prevent stomach cancer.
- Strong immune system: Anti-aging, and high energy. Peas have high levels of anti-oxidants like:
- phenolic acids = caffeine and ferulic acid
- carotenoid= beta-carotene and alpha-carotene
- flavinoids = epicatechin and catechin
- Polyphenols = coumestrol
- Peas also have strong anti-inflammatory properties. These properties include:
- Pisumsaponins I and II and Pismo sides A and B. They are anti-inflammatory phytonutrients.
- Vitamin C and vitamin E.
- Omega-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid.
- Prevents Heart Disease: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds support blood vessels. The plaque formation along our blood vessel walls starts with stress and inflammation. The large amounts of vitamin B1, B2, B3 and folate and B6 reduce homocysteine levels. Thus this further increases the risk factor for heart disease.
- Peas are also a good source of B-complex vitamins like thiamin, pantothenic acid, and niacin pyridoxine.
- One cup of peas contains a large amount of Vitamin K. it helps to anchor calcium inside the bones. Vitamin B of peas helps to prevent osteoporosis.
- Controls constipation – The high fiber content improves bowel peristalsis and health.
Nutritional Profile of One Cup of Peas
It has 125 calories that give 522 KJ of energy approximately. Other aspects are:
- Total fat = 0.4 gm
- Saturated fat <0.1 gm
- Fibre 8.8 gm
- Cholesterol 0 mg
- Sugar = 7.4 gm
- Calcium = 38.4 gm
- Protein = 8.2gm
- Potassium = 176 gm.
It is imperative to eat green peas gently cooked. Gently cooked peas retain most of the nutrients.
If you want to preserve peas, you can freeze them. Now before freezing, they must be grown then picked, and shelled at last. The greater the tenderness easier it is to generate the final product. To avoid spoilage freezing the peas after the process of picking up is always followed. After selection, peas we place them in ice water and allow cooling. Later on, we spray them with water to remove residual dirt which may remain on the vegetable.
The next step is blanching. Boiling of peas takes place to remove any enzymes for few minutes. This may shorten the shelf life. The peas are then left to cool down. Now the final step is to freeze the product this can be done via air blast freezing.
Pea grading is an assortment of peas by size. Smallest is equal to the highest quality for their tenderness.
You may want to read about many other vegetables that can be grown in the Summer season. Liked what you read? If yes, then please comment on the blog. Also, share it with your acquaintances.